Eric Lichtfouse is Editor of scholarly journals and series in environmental chemistry and agriculture. He teaching scientific writing in Europe and the USA and is heading publication assistance services. He has done research in organic geochemistry, soil carbon dynamics and phytoremediation. Didier Robert is professor in organic chemistry and green chemistry at the University of Lorraine-Metz France.
He is associate editor of the Journal of Photocatalysis Sciences and its research activities are devoted to the decontamination of air and water by photochemical processes, especially by photocatalysis. Chlorine for water disinfection: properties, applications and health effects Patrick Drogui 2.
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- CO2 Sequestration, Biofuels and Depollution.
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Greenhouse gas from organic waste composting: emissions and measurement Antoni Sanchez 3. CO2 photocatalytic reduction: photocatalyst choice and product selectivity Chai Siang-Piao 4. Fluoride in drinking water: health effects and remediation Meththika Vithanage 5. Selenium in agriculture. Water, air, soil, plants, food, animals and nanoselenium Hassan Elramady 6.
Biofuels: bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen from plants and microalgae Mahdi Gharabaghi 7. Digestion tests to measure heavy metal bioavailability in soils Yi Li 8. Biosafety risk of genetically modified crops containing Cry genes Mehboob-ur-Rahman 9. Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe.
Chemically it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters FAME.
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Oils are mixed with sodium hydroxide and methanol or ethanol and the chemical reaction produces biodiesel FAME and glycerol. One part glycerol is produced for every 10 parts biodiesel.
Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamia pinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel B is by far the lowest emission diesel fuel. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion, they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available. Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. In some countries manufacturers cover their diesel engines under warranty for B use, although Volkswagen of Germany, for example, asks drivers to check by telephone with the VW environmental services department before switching to B B may become more viscous at lower temperatures, depending on the feedstock used, requiring vehicles to have fuel line heaters.
In most cases, biodiesel is compatible with diesel engines from onwards, which use 'Viton' by DuPont synthetic rubber in their mechanical injection systems. Electronically controlled 'common rail' and 'pump duse' type systems from the late s onwards may only use biodiesel blended with conventional diesel fuel.
Co2 Sequestration, Biofuels and Depollution
These engines have finely metered and atomized multi-stage injection systems are very sensitive to the viscosity of the fuel. Many current generation diesel engines are made so that they can run on B without altering the engine itself, although this depends on the fuel rail design. Since biodiesel is an effective solvent and cleans residues deposited by mineral diesel, engine filters may need to be replaced more often, as the biofuel dissolves old deposits in the fuel tank and pipes.
It also effectively cleans the engine combustion chamber of carbon deposits, helping to maintain efficiency. This improves the combustion of fossil diesel and reduces the particulate emissions from un-burnt carbon. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about F C compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of F 52 C. Edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can be used for this purpose.
Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or more rarely cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. To ensure that the fuel injectors atomize the fuel in the correct pattern for efficient combustion, vegetable oil fuel must be heated to reduce its viscosity to that of diesel, either by electric coils or heat exchangers.
This is easier in warm or temperate climates. Vegetable oil can also be used in many older diesel engines that do not use common rail or unit injection electronic diesel injection systems. Due to the design of the combustion chambers in indirect injection engines, these are the best engines for use with vegetable oil. This system allows the relatively larger oil molecules more time to burn.
Some older engines, especially Mercedes are driven experimentally by enthusiasts without any conversion, a handful of drivers have experienced limited success with earlier pre-"Pumpe Duse" VW TDI engines and other similar engines with direct injection.
Bill Gates is backing a plan to turn CO2 into fuel
Several companies like Elsbett]or Wolf have developed professional conversion kits and successfully installed hundreds of them over the last decades. Oils and fats can be hydrogenated to give a diesel substitute. The resulting product is a straight chain hydrocarbon, high in cetane, low in aromatics and sulphur and does not contain oxygen. Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions Hydrogenated oils have several advantages over biodiesel, including good performance at low temperatures, no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack.
Bio ethers also referred to as fuel ethers or fuel oxygenates are cost-effective compounds that act as octane rating enhancers. They also enhance engine performance, whilst significantly reducing engine wear and toxic exhaust emissions. Greatly reducing the amount of ground-level ozone, they contribute to the quality of the air we breathe. Biogas is produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes.
The solid byproduct, digestate, can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer.
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In the UK, the National Coal Board experimented with microorganisms that digested coal in situ converting it directly to gases such as methane. Biogas contains methane and can be recovered from industrial anaerobic digesters and mechanical biological treatment systems. Landfill gas is a less clean form of biogas which is produced in landfills through naturally occurring anaerobic digestion. If it escapes into the atmosphere it is a potent greenhouse gas. Farmers can produce biogas from manure from their cows by getting a anaerobic digester AD.
Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is produced by partial combustion of biomass, that is, combustion with an amount of oxygen that is not sufficient to convert the biomass completely to carbon dioxide and water. The resulting gas mixture, syngas, is itself a fuel. Using the syngas is more efficient than direct combustion of the original biofuel; more of the energy contained in the fuel is extracted.
Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines or turbines. The wood gas generator is a wood-fueled gasification reactor mounted on an internal combustion engine. Syngas can be used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted via the Fischer-Tropsch process to produce a synthetic diesel substitute, or a mixture of alcohols that can be blended into gasoline.
Lower temperature gasification is desirable when co-producing biochar but results in a Syngas polluted with tar. Examples include wood, sawdust, grass cuttings, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, and dried manure. When raw biomass is already in a suitable form such as firewood , it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam. When raw biomass is in an inconvenient form such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues , the typical process is to densify the biomass.
This process includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size known as hogfuel , which depending on the densification type can be from 1 to 3 cm 1 in , which is then concentrated into a fuel product. The current types of processes are pellet, cube, or puck. The pellet process is most common in Europe and is typically a pure wood product. The other types of densification are larger in size compared to a pellet and are compatible with a broadrange of input feedstocks.
The resulting densified fuel is easier transport and feed into thermal generation systems such as boilers. A problem with the combustion of raw biomass is that it emits considerable amounts of pollutants such as particulates and PAHs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Even modern pellet boilers generate much more pollutants than oil or natural gas boilers. Pellets made from agricultural residues are usually worse than wood pellets, producing much larger emissions of dioxins and chlorophenols.
Notwithstanding the above noted study, numerous studies have shown that biomass fuels have significantly less impact on the environment than fossil based fuels.
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Of note is the U. Sequestering CO 2 from the power plant flue gas can significantly reduce the GHGs from the power plant itself, but this is not the total picture. CO 2 capture and sequestration consumes additional energy, thus lowering the plant's fuel-to-electricity efficiency.
To compensate for this, more fossil fuel must be procured and consumed to make up for lost capacity. Taking this into consideration, the global warming potential GWP , which is a combination of CO 2 , methane CH 4 , and nitrous oxide N 2 O emissions, and energy balance of the system need to be examined using a life cycle approach.
This takes into account the upstream processes which remain constant after CO 2 sequestration as well as the steps required for additional power generation.
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