A collection of interdisciplinary scholars explore various dimensions of globalization, and their relationship to development processes in the region. The text includes accounts of how globalization is being experienced, understood, managed and resisted at various scales in relation to development processes in the Asia-Pacific region. This perspective should provide valuable analysis for political scientists, as well as those involved in human geography, sociology, international political economy, development studies, Asian studies and economics. Maklumat bibliografi. The impacts of these have been so rapid that they are the focus of much academic and popular writing.
The journalist and author, Thomas Friedman, is one of the most well-known popular writer on globalisation. Source: Held, D. Stiglitz defines globalisation as:.
Source: Stiglitz, J. A number of scholars argue that these definitions are too narrow as they do not emphasise the many different aspects of globalisation. For example, the University of California Atlas of World Inequality argues that we need to recognize at least four dimensions:. These different dimensions of globalisation often need to be studied separately in order to provide a detailed analysis. However, they are closely interlinked and have many interconnections and a full picture of each one must include its relationships with the others.
Indeed, Joseph Stiglitz and Thomas Friedman, two of the main writers about economic globalisation have, also written extensively about the relationship between globalisation and climate change. Q Identify an example of each of the four dimensions of globalisation in Good Morning World! Also provide an additional example of each one from another aspect of your life.
We saw in the previous activity that globalisation works through many interconnected means. Some examples of the drivers behind globalisation that were identified included: the promotion of free trade, multinational corporations, transport, the media and communications technologies, and consumerism.
Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign markets, large corporations are able to source their raw materials from many different countries and establish factories and sales outlets all over the world. More recently, China and India are becoming strong supporters of free trade as their economies start to dominate global markets.
This defining feature of globalisation is underpinned by a politico-economic philosophy known as neo-liberalism. Neo-liberal trade policies are intended to encourage free trade but many people, especially in developing countries, argue that it has not produced fair trade. Read more …. Where did the ideas behind your position come from? It might seem impossible or, at least impractical, but every week four-wheel-drive trucks made in Japan bring crates of Coca-Cola to a remote Mayan community in the Yucatan of Mexico when the community lacks running water and electricity in their community.
The same thing happens in villages in many parts of Africa and Asia. One explanation is that carbonated soft drinks are very profitable to sell but water is not. This was explained in the module on Consumption. Two processes lie behind this paradox. The first includes the neo-liberal trade and economic policies we saw in the previous section.
Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific : Kris Olds :
Neo-liberal policies favour private enterprise and discourage government investment in the sorts of social infrastructure that support education, health, public transport, housing and housing that contribute to social well-being. The second is the ever-increasing influence of multinational corporations. A multinational corporation MNC is a large company engaged in international production and sales. The largest MNCs have raw materials extraction and production sites in many different countries, even often manufacturing different components of a product in different countries where it has a cost advantage.
A growing amount of what we consume is produced from outside our own countries by MNCs whose purpose is to make a profit for their owners and shareholders. Many of these companies have active corporate social responsibility programmes to assist the communities where they operate.
Nevertheless, of the largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs. Sometimes MNCs are so large that they transcend national boundaries in their operations and are know as transnational corporations TNCs. As a result, MNCs have the potential to strongly influence international trade and investment laws so that they can meet their need to make a profit.
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Technology has been another principal driver of globalisation. Advances in transport and information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Developments in containerisation and bulk carrier shipping have enabled rapid and cost-effective transport while innovations in logistics and air-freight means that many goods — from African flowers to Chinese-made computers — can arrive in markets over-night.
- Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific.
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- Self-Organizing Systems: Third International Workshop, IWSOS 2008, Vienna, Austria, December 10-12, 2008. Proceedings.
However, it is the rapid improvements in information and communication technologies that have provided some of the strongest drivers of globalisation in recent years. The global Internet and its associated capacity for financial transfers have provided companies with valuable new tools for:. Read more on the role of the Internet and globalisation. The rise of the Internet is only one of the many manifestations of globalisation and communication technologies.
The mass media have and are having a major impact on linking people and ideas around the world — from newspapers, radio and television, to Hollywood and Bollywood movies through to the Internet, Google, Web 2. And, in so doing, the lived experience of globalisation and the mental and cultural models of the world it creates serve to further encourage even greater globalisation of the economy, culture and politics.kamishiro-hajime.info/voice/localiser-mon/telephone-fixe-avec-micro-espion.php
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This can be an enriching process for many people, opening their minds to new ideas and experiences, and strengthening the universal values in a global culture of peace and understanding. However, some commentators have noticed that the concentration of major entertainment and advertising industries in the United States as contributing to the decreasing diversity of global cultures. Around the world, these brands are identified with the United States and represent its dominance around the globe. Coca-Cola, Disney and McDonalds have myriad sales outlets, hundreds of country web sites and billions of dollars to spend on advertising, thus spreading Western ways worldwide.
Among the many results of this process are the loss of local cultural difference and the decline of world languages and the cultural experiences they contain. One of the major dimensions of the mental models created by globalisation has been the commodification — or commercialisation — of daily life.
As a result, one part of the cultural impact of globalisation has been to create a global consumer culture. This aspect of cultural globalisation was analysed in Module 9. The important point to note about consumerism is that it is both an effect and cause of on-going globalisation. Itself a product of the media, new communication technologies and the resultant normalisation of Western ways of life, consumerism drives global demand for new and more products which, in its turn, drives the sales of products of multinational corporations and entrenches economic globalization.
In this way the driving forces of globalisation become self-reinforcing. Q Draw a diagram to illustrate the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation. Each company also operates in a variety of fields beyond recorded music, including film making and distribution, publishing, electronics and telecommunications. This extends their influence to cover more markets within the global entertainment industry. Research the global music industry further.
Q Explain how the global music industry illustrates the free trade, MNC, communications and consumer drivers of globalisation.
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Scholars have interpreted the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation in a number of ways. As a result, a number of different theories of globalisation has been proposed. Globalisation is experienced in many different ways in many parts of the world, and there are many different opinions about it. More …. Review how globalisation is viewed in your country or a part of the world near, or like, yours.
Globalisation has many strong advocates and many critics. Assessments of globalisation therefore depend on whose perspective is being expressed, their experience of globalisation, and its impact on their lives. Such perspectives also depend upon whether or not the economic status, government, access to telecommunications, etc. Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are relatively similar?
Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are very different?
Related Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories (Routledge Studies in Globalisation)
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