Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species


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Velizar Simeonovski kindly drew Figure 5 and the artwork for Figure 3 for the purpose of this study. Two anonymous reviewers provided insightful observations and criticism on an earlier draft of this paper. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Oct Kitchener 3. Andrew C. Anjali Goswami, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 30; Accepted Sep 5. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

This article has been corrected. See PLoS One. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Figure S1: A principal components analysis on size-adjusted metric variables of the anterior part of the upper dentition from the holotype and paratype of P. Figure S2: A comparison of condylobasal skull lengths CBL of specimens of extant Panthera species, and the two fossil species, Panthera palaeosinensis and P. Figure S3: Bite forces were computed based on a model of relative, not absolute i.

Figure S4: Stepwise Discriminant Analyses of upper dentition variables C 1 crown length and alveolar width; P 3 crown length and width; P 4 crown length, width and length of the paracone and metastyle blades ; and lower dentition variables C 1 crown height and alveolar width; P 3 crown length; P 4 crown length and width; and M 1 crown length and width.

Figure S5: 3D plot of Principal Components PC 1—3 of a multivariate analysis on craniomandibular and dental proportions indicating that the Longdan tiger is distinctly different from all modern tigers on PC1, which is primarily related to its proportionally large teeth in particular a well developed P 4 protocone , and long tooth rows. Figure S6: A plot of the first two Discriminant functions from a multivariate study Discriminant Function DFA study on Principal Component scores of craniomandibular and dental proportions in putative tiger subspecies without a priori classification.

Appendix S1: Actual body masses kg and condylobasal skull lengths CBL; mm in 19 specimens representing 6 species of extant pantherines used for computing regression analysis for predicting the body mass in Panthera zdanskyi. Appendix S2: Description of characters and data matrix used in phylogenetic analysis.

Abstract The tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. Introduction The extant pantherine cats comprise a well supported clade of seven extant species and several fossil species primarily known from the Middle and Late Pleistocene [1] , [2] , and fossils attributable to all extant species-lineages are also Pleistocene Calabrian-Tarantian [2] — [4]. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Holotype of Panthera zdanskyi sp.

Geological age and fauna Specimens of P. Diagnosis A jaguar-sized pantherine with a robust skull; well developed cranial muscular crests; large, robust canines; long nasals relative to skull size, which extend posterior to the maxilla-frontal suture; heart-shaped narial aperture; robust mandible with straight ventral profile; proportionally large carnassials and large teeth overall; upper carnassial P 4 with a distinct ectoparastyle and well-developed protocone; lower carnassial M 1 with a well-defined talonid, and short and low paraconid and protoconid cusps relative to crown length; M 1 with a large paraconid relative to the protoconid; P 4 with large protoconid, nearly half of crown length.

Description of the material Holotype The holotype consists of a well-preserved cranium and mandible Fig. Figure 2. Phylogenetic analyses A cladistic analysis based on the database from [1] confirmed that P. Figure 3. Figure 4. The shape of the cranium in Panthera spp. Figure 5. UPGMA distance-matrix tree constructed based on relative warp scores on a geometric morphometric analysis of cranial shape in the Pantherinae. Figure 6. The shape of the mandible in Panthera spp.

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Discussion Panthera zdanskyi is an ancient, very primitive member of the particular Panthera species-lineage of which the extant tiger represents the crown taxon. Figure 7. Artist's reconstruction of the Longdan tiger Panthera zdanskyi sp. Figure 8. The size-change of tigers through the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene, using carnassial P 4 and M 1 crown lengths and p3-M1 length. Figure 9. Materials and Methods Morphological comparative material: Morphometric comparisons of Panthera zdanskyi with extant and extinct pantherines were performed using a database of skulls collected at museums across China, Europe, and the United States.

Geometric morphometric analyses The morphology of the cranium and mandible of Panthera zdanskyi and its morphological resemblance to those of other pantherine species were also assessed using geometric morphometric analyses of the lateral aspect of the cranium and mandible. Systematic analyses The phylogenetic affinities of Panthera zdanskyi were assessed using a combination of cladistic parsimony analysis and distance-matrix analysis of cranial shape based on relative warp scores.

Supporting Information Figure S1 A principal components analysis on size-adjusted metric variables of the anterior part of the upper dentition from the holotype and paratype of P. DOC Click here for additional data file. Figure S2 A comparison of condylobasal skull lengths CBL of specimens of extant Panthera species, and the two fossil species, Panthera palaeosinensis and P. Figure S3 Bite forces were computed based on a model of relative, not absolute i.

Figure S4 Stepwise Discriminant Analyses of upper dentition variables C 1 crown length and alveolar width; P 3 crown length and width; P 4 crown length, width and length of the paracone and metastyle blades ; and lower dentition variables C 1 crown height and alveolar width; P 3 crown length; P 4 crown length and width; and M 1 crown length and width. Figure S5 3D plot of Principal Components PC 1—3 of a multivariate analysis on craniomandibular and dental proportions indicating that the Longdan tiger is distinctly different from all modern tigers on PC1, which is primarily related to its proportionally large teeth in particular a well developed P 4 protocone , and long tooth rows.

Associated Data

Figure S6 A plot of the first two Discriminant functions from a multivariate study Discriminant Function DFA study on Principal Component scores of craniomandibular and dental proportions in putative tiger subspecies without a priori classification. Appendix S1 Actual body masses kg and condylobasal skull lengths CBL; mm in 19 specimens representing 6 species of extant pantherines used for computing regression analysis for predicting the body mass in Panthera zdanskyi.


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Appendix S2 Description of characters and data matrix used in phylogenetic analysis. Acknowledgments We are indebted to John P. Footnotes Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. References 1. Christiansen P. Phylogeny of the great cats Felidae: Pantherinae , and the influence of fossil taxa and missing characters.

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Phylogeny and evolution of cats Felidae. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press; Hemmer H. Die Evolution der Pantherkatzen. The phylogeny of the tiger. Tigers of the World. New Jersey: Noyes Publ; Barry JC. Large carnivores Canidae, Hyaenidae, Felidae from Laetoli. Laetoli — a Pliocene site in Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Turner A. The evolution of the guild of larger terrestrial carnivores during the Plio-Pleistocene in Africa.

The big cats and their fossil relatives: An illustrated guide to their evolution and natural history. New York: Columbia Univ. Press; Werdelin L, Lewis ME.

Ronald L Tilson

Plio-Pleistocene Carnivora of eastern Africa: species richness and turnover patterns. Zool J Linn Soc. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera Carnivora: Felidae. Mol Phyl Evol. Zdansky O. Palaeontol Sin Ser C ; 2 :1— What is Panthera palaeosinensis? Mamm Rev. Pei WC. On the Carnivora from locality 1 of Choukoutien. Palaeontol Sin. Kitchener AC, Yamaguchi N. What is a Tiger?

Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species
Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management and Conservation of an Endangered Species

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